With location data, the app can indicate statistics, like how far you've run or how fast you were cycling. If you let an app see your location data, that app can use the location data stored in Google Fit by other apps.
Based on detailed product-level modelling, it is estimated that, in the sectors of complex medium-lived products (such as mobile phones and washing machines) in the EU, the annual net-material cost savings opportunity amounts to up to USD 630 billion. For fast moving consumer goods (such as household cleaning products), there is a material cost-saving potential of up to USD 700 billion globally.
Businesses could lower costs and create new profit streams. Analysis of complex medium-lived products (e.g. mobile phones) and fast-moving consumer goods (e.g. household cleaning products) shows that the circular economy would support the following improvements:
The number of deletions does not always match the number of cycles (one deletion/cycle). First, in 13% (6/48) of the MG1655-derived strain types, the number of deletions is one short of the expected number. This can be explained by the traceless insertion/excision of the transposon: AEJ repair might proceed via the short homologies at the ends of the transposon insertion. This notion is further supported by the fact that the ratio of the supposed traceless deletions is much higher (75%; 9/12) in MDS42-derived cells, where the purified genome lacks most of the longer repetitive sequences promoting repair. Second, analysis of the first cycle shows a high proportion (29%; 10/34) of cell types possessing one surplus deletion, which is then carried over to the following cycles. This is due to two variants of a deletion (D7 and D8), affecting the flagellar gene cluster that has a high propensity for loss, even without the assistance of DSB/repair, as analysed below.
This review discusses previous literature that has examined the influence of muscular strength on various factors associated with athletic performance and the benefits of achieving greater muscular strength. Greater muscular strength is strongly associated with improved force-time characteristics that contribute to an athlete's overall performance. Much research supports the notion that greater muscular strength can enhance the ability to perform general sport skills such as jumping, sprinting, and change of direction tasks. Further research indicates that stronger athletes produce superior performances during sport specific tasks. Greater muscular strength allows an individual to potentiate earlier and to a greater extent, but also decreases the risk of injury. Sport scientists and practitioners may monitor an individual's strength characteristics using isometric, dynamic, and reactive strength tests and variables. Relative strength may be classified into strength deficit, strength association, or strength reserve phases. The phase an individual falls into may directly affect their level of performance or training emphasis. Based on the extant literature, it appears that there may be no substitute for greater muscular strength when it comes to improving an individual's performance across a wide range of both general and sport specific skills while simultaneously reducing their risk of injury when performing these skills. Therefore, sport scientists and practitioners should implement long-term training strategies that promote the greatest muscular strength within the required context of each sport/event. Future research should examine how force-time characteristics, general and specific sport skills, potentiation ability, and injury rates change as individuals transition from certain standards or the suggested phases of strength to another.
The termination condition of a Genetic Algorithm is important in determining when a GA run will end. It has been observed that initially, the GA progresses very fast with better solutions coming in every few iterations, but this tends to saturate in the later stages where the improvements are very small. We usually want a termination condition such that our solution is close to the optimal, at the end of the run.
This research followed design as a research paradigm to apply zero-waste principles to 3D printing in efforts to ensure sustainable applications of 3D technology in the apparel and fashion industry. Researchers used Rhinoceros 5, Tinkercad, MakerBot Replicator 2 desktop 3D printer, and polylactic acid filament to create elaborate designs. This design research is the first successful attempt at 3D printing for biodegradable zero-waste fashion notions and accessories. The researcher employed design thinking and strategies to create objects without the use of rafts and supporters removing waste creation. Multiple attempts resulted in an acceptable outcome of five pendant designs for necklaces, two earring designs, and nine layer-designed buttons. The buttons were attached to a draped cape design utilizing 95% of the fabric. There is a considerable potential to use this disruptive technology in designing and creating fashions that are unique, sustainable (zero-waste), and made on demand.
Keeping in mind current developments and prospects in the fashion industry, the purpose of this design as research was to explore the potential of 3D printing for sustainable fashion. Respecting the rich potential for minimizing waste when using 3D technology (Gebler et al. 2014), the intent was to design customizable fashion notions and accessories made with environmentally-friendly materials using zero-waste sustainable design strategies. For clarification, there is a variety of 3D printing technology available including light polymerized, granular material binding and extrusion-based (Tania 2017). This design as research project used extrusion technology for additive manufacturing (AM), an innovative technology that has become increasingly available for artists, designers, and consumers (Reeves 2009).
Many researchers are exploring the potential of 3D printing but none have applied the philosophy of zero-waste to their designs. In this project, each design researcher took a different creative approach to designing and printing sustainable fashion notions. Researcher A has over 20 years and Researcher B has 3 years of design experience. The former created a cape and strove to design buttons (notions) using 3D printing technology. The latter created jewelry (pendants and earrings). These fashion items were designed with different sources of inspiration but with the same end goal of creating fashion items that are zero-waste and made from sustainable materials. The intent of this research was to develop a design process that minimized waste from 3D printing, ensuring a sustainable process and fashion outcome.
In their creative design as research method, the researchers hoped to develop a 3D process for building fashion notions and jewelry that yielded zero-waste. To that end, following a steep learning curve facilitated by Lynda.com tutorials, as well as several trial runs on the CAD-based tools, 3D modeling MakerBot software, and the 3D printer platform, the researchers developed expertise in design and design strategies. During the learning process, researchers were able to identify limitations and create desired shapes without waste.
Each button took about 20 min to print. The 3D printing design work was a combination of simple letter shapes followed by the complex rendering of a map shape and layering. This process ensured that each button was printed without using rafts and supporters. The zero-waste buttons were designed to complement the sustainable fabric enabling experimentation and expanding the scope of design using available software and equipment. Researcher A developed intermediate skills in designing and printing in 3D. These designs can be further refined in terms of their sustainability by exploring the layer height, printing speed and quality, infill, number of shells, and extruder temperature.
Design work as well as research and literature on 3D printing in fashion is in its infancy. Readiness to use this technology is on a continuum with many researchers exploring its potential and fewer designers actually successfully applying 3D printing to their work. Iris van Herpen, Shapeways, and Cubify are some of the leading designers and 3D companies but none of them have applied the philosophy of zero-waste to their design process as was reported herein. The authors were inspired by the zero-waste philosophy (Zero-waste International Alliance 2009), which gives fashion designers the opportunity to change the industry. The fashion items developed were created without generating any waste demonstrating a process that contributes to the body of knowledge on 3D printing with PLA plastic for the fashion industry.
This design as research was limited because of the shortcomings of the MakerBot Replicator 2 3D Desktop printer. The research was further limited by the size of build plate and type of filament used in addition to the challenges of learning the engineering-based CAD software Rhinoceros 5. Kwon et al. (2017) also reported difficulties in quickly learning Rhinoceros. Because the MakerBot prints with only PLA or ABS filaments, consideration of other durable (washable) and sustainable materials is necessary for future research. Future researchers could also explore other research variables including layer height, printing speed and quality, infill, number of shells, and extruder temperature, or other printers and materials. These may affect zero-waste achievements. Other sustainability issues related to 3D printing include emission of toxic gases and use of electric power and heat generation, issues that are beyond the scope of this paper. Such research could help this technology to storm the fashion world. Finally, although the authors were able to explore and design notions and jewelry, exploration of other available technologies and materials will facilitate further research in the area of producing sustainable, zero-waste 3D fashion items. 2b1af7f3a8